There are several ways to share docs with people who aren't members of your team. (You can find the internal share guide over here.)
Get the public share link for a doc 🔗
You can select between private and public links via the icon in the bottom right of the share menu.
Here's an example of a public doc, in the wild: Embed Examples
Get the public share link for a channel ⛓️
Sharing a whole channel (via the left sidebar) will result in sharing the whole doc hierarchy, rather than just one doc.
The viewers of your channel share link will see all the docs in your channel, like so:
Share your docs via email ✉️
You will be able to set read / write permission for each email address, and you can even add people to your workspace through the share menu, now.
Control who can publicly share docs
Prefer to restrict public sharing to certain members of your team? No problem. On the Standard plan, you can set permissions for who is allowed to make channels and documents public, in your team settings.
You can manage your document's permissions directly in the Share menu, as well: