There are several ways to share docs with people who aren't members of your team:
Get the public share link 🔗
You can select between private and public links via the icon in the bottom right of the share menu.
Here's an example of a public doc, in the wild: Embed Examples
Share your docs via email ✉️
You will be able to set read / write permission for each email address, and you can even add people to your workspace through the share menu, now.
Control who can publicly share docs
Prefer to restrict public sharing to certain members of your team? No problem. On the Standard plan, you can set permissions for who is allowed to make channels and documents public, in your team settings.
You can manage your document's permissions directly in the Share menu, as well: